Arduino: Edison supports Arduino. See the following link. Please keep in mind that in addition to the full Arduino library, you also have support of standard POSIX libraries as well through arduino--things like fopen, execv, syscall, and more!
MRAA Provides basic functionality for a variety of interfaces such as UART, I2C, SPI, etc.
UPM Provides interfaces to a variety of commonly used sensors and sensor types, including Grove sensors.